Since the end of the Cold War, more and more groups of people have demanded the right to "self-determination", meaning they have demanded their own nation-state or some degree of autonomy within another nation state. The demands may be political — groups may want sovereignty or a greater political "voice" in the governmental structure, or they may be cultural — wanting the right to preserve their own language, cultural traditions, and "way of life.
The responses to these demands have been quite varied, ranging from complete denial through ignoring the demands, or repressing them to trying to accommodate them to lesser or greater degrees.
Often considerable conflict emerges before an accommodation of whatever kind is worked out. In order for these conflicts to be resolved, steps must be taken to address the desire for self-determination. At times, such conflicts have been resolved through secession. In many cases, however, this is unnecessarily extreme and impractical.
Thus, self-determination efforts that involve breaking up a state are still generally viewed unsympathetically, especially due to the fear of setting a bad precedent. The recognition of former Yugoslav states was an important exception, however.
Richard Falk has categorized the different types of self-determination claims that have been made historically. Claims of Secession and Autonomy Decolonization; elimination of foreign rule e. Secession by federal units in relation to a central government e. Indigenous communities or nations e.
Claims of Human Rights and Democracy The option of colonial status e. The option of federalism Third Order: The option of legal regimes of guaranty and protection that confer rights of access, participation, and equality Fourth Order: The option of fiduciary arrangements administered by a traditional territorial sovereign, with an undertaking to preserve traditional rights to sacred land including hunting and fishing rightsand the ways of life of minorities and indigenous peoples This essay reviews the evolution of the concept of self-determination, examining how it has been addressed in international law and through devices internal to states, It then considers some criticisms of self-determination.
The History of Self-Determination The idea of self-determination is often traced to the American and French revolutions and the principles of individual liberty and freedom that they embodied.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, self-determination was a widely accepted concept throughout Europe and the United States.
It is evident in the writings of Wilson and Stalin early in the twentieth century, and was enshrined in the United Nations at its founding. However, self-determination had evolved to mean something quite different in Central and Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and the U.
In an ideal sense, individuals primarily exercised their right to self-determination by electing representatives to act on their constituents' interests. In Central and Eastern Europe, by contrast, it was rooted in an exclusive nationalism that led ethnic groups to seek their own country.
As such, national minorities were more of a problem in the latter region. The aftermath of World War I brought these issues to the forefront. Wilson's Fourteen Points outlined a number of principles of self-determination, but applied only to Europeans. Lenin's rhetoric, by contrast, was much more universal though ultimately less influential.
Initially, the Wilsonian idea that the principle of self-determination did not apply to colonies was sustained. This process, however, only created more subgroups that were not granted their own states.
Instead, they were labeled national minorities, which formally entitled them to guarantees of being able to maintain their cultures. The victors of World War I required the new states in Central and Eastern Europe to accept these conditions in order to be recognized, but did not accept the obligations themselves.
Charter, Article 1 2reflects a compromise between normative sympathies and the desire of European countries to retain their colonies by saying, "To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.
Economic and political strains reduced the will of European powers to retain colonies. The Cold War rhetorical battle laid bare the contradictions between the West's claims to being defenders of freedom while at the same time maintaining their colonial dominions.
What is more, the work of activists brought human rights to greater attention internationally.The principle of national self-determination, which acquired popular political prevalence in 19th century Europe, played a key role in the confederation of Italy in addition to that of Germany at that point in time.
Self-determination is an imprecise and ill-defined concept The message from historical examples seems to be, that achieving self-determination through peaceful means is . Inborn Traits vs. Self-Determination Essay Words 4 Pages Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, is a novel of interpersonal struggle between inborn traits versus the self determined willingness to work for success.
When speaking in terms of legalized euthanasia, and self-determination, Callahan feels that people should make decisions for themselves according to their own beliefs as to what comprises the good life. The concept of Self Determination has been developed after the end of the Second World War and the idea of self determination was supported by International law and formulated in the Charter of the United Nations Article 1 (2) of the United Nations Charter.
National Self-Determination refers to the self-governance of nations within a larger region. This concept radically changed how we viewed the world and arguably led to some of the most drastic.