I have been officially one month without smoking. If we take into consideration the various tentatives that I have done under the effects of some alcohol, music, and night conversations I have smoked almost one cigarrete in total or maybe 2, the details are not important, you have to look at the big picture. Thanks to the people who didn't allow me to go further in those dangerous 30 seconds of craving.
More Essay Examples on Smoking Rubric In theory, in a market that with perfect information and no externalities, the market can distribute resources efficiently without any regulation.
This is what happened in the case of smoking. The act of smoking by smokers creates negative externalities to non-smokers, whose health will be damaged by second hand smoke, and whose clothes and hair become smelly.
Smokers not only impose externalities on others but also impose externalities on themselves. For example, smokers themselves will likely to suffer from health problem.
Assuming that there is not any regulation or policy on production and consumption of cigarettes, the market drives the supply and demand for cigarettes to a balance, as Figure 1 shows. In Figure 1, the market equilibrium is where marginal private cost the cost of an extra unit consumed is equal to the marginal private benefit the satisfaction from an extra unit.
However, the market equilibrium quantity QMarket here does not take externalities of smoking into account. The externalities will cause market failure, in which situation the market cannot allocate resource optimally.
If we internalise the externalities, the outcome will be different. The externalities can usually be classified into production externalities and consumption externalities.
We examine the externalities of smoking in both of the two aspects. The production externalities of smoking are the cost of smoking supply while the consumption externalities of smoking are the benefit of smoking demand.
Negative Production Externalities of Smoking The cost curve in Figure 1 reflects merely the private cost of smoking. However, consumption of cigarettes creates additional external costs. These costs not only include the cost of health problems of both smokers and non-smokers, but also include costs borne by smokers who are not fully aware of the consequences of smoking Collins and Lapsley, Therefore the social cost exceeds private cost.
The social optimal equilibrium internalises the external costs of smoking. As can be seen from Figure 2, the social cost of smoking exceeds the private cost. The social cost curve is above the private cost curve and the gap between these two curves are caused by the negative externalities of smoking.
This means that the equilibrium quantity, QMarket is not the optimal quantity. The social optimal quantity QOptimum is less than the market equilibrium quantity QMarket. Negative Consumption Externalities of Smoking At the demand side, smokers have a private benefit from smoking, but if taking externalities into account, the act of smoking creates less benefit than the private benefit.
Figure 1 does not illustrate these negative consumption externalities of smoking. Figure 3 shows demand curve in present of negative consumption externalities of smoking: In Figure 3, the social demand curve is above the private demand curve because the social demand curve takes into account the consumption externalities of smoking.
The gap between the two curves reflects the negative external benefits of smoking. Same as the external costs of smoking in Figure 2, the equilibrium quantity QMarket is not the optimal quantity.
Externalities of Smoking Combine Figure 2 and Figure 3, we can get the externalities of smoking, which is illustrated by Figure 4.
In this figure, both the externalities of smoking in supply and demand have been internalised. The Ban on Smoking in Public Places In order to deal with the market failure, policy makers can enact some regulations on smoking such as tax increase on cigarettes, restriction on sales and ban smoking in specific places.
All these regulations on smoking can be classified into two types: How does the restriction in public places works?The way I see it, the argument is a straight forward externality argument- you tax and/or ban something with negative externalities and since smoking levies a cost on other people, it is a valid target for pigouvian taxes and/or banning entirely from some places.
• The person smoking next to you • The mess in someone’s lawn. Introduction 17 These outcomes are evidence of a market failure. Externalities 2.
Public goods. Externalities Externalities: A cost or benefit that affects a party not directly involved in a transaction.
Negative Consumption Externalities of Smoking At the demand side, smokers have a private benefit from smoking, but if taking externalities into account, the act of smoking creates less References: Coase, R.A., ()., ‘The problem of social cost’, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.3, pp Smokers themselves claim that smoking is “cool” and for people who aren't smokers, it is just disgusting and most non-smokers avoid people who are smoking.
This is the negative externality and the harmful affects smoking can have to the third party members which are the non-smokers. Externalities External Benefit (Positive Externality): A benefit that arises from an activity undertaken by an individual, firm, or other economic agent and that is borne by others because the cost is not incorporated into the market prices the agent pays.
Externalities of Smoking Combine Figure 2 and Figure 3, we can get the externalities of smoking, which is illustrated by Figure 4. In this figure, both the externalities of smoking in supply and demand have been internalised.
The social optimum equilibrium is the intersection of .