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Definition, Features, Benefits, Disadvantages and Problems! It was Max Webber who propounded the bureaucratic theory of organisation and management. Bureaucracy is an administrative system designed to accomplish large-scale administrative tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals.
Weber has observed three types of power in organisations: He has emphasised that bureaucratic type of power is the ideal one.
Weber has given a number of features of bureaucracy. Accordingly, following features suggest the characteristics of bureaucratic organisations.
Bureaucratic organisations generally have administrative class responsible for maintaining coordinative activities of the members. Main features of his class are as follows: The basic feature of bureaucratic organisation is that there is hierarchy of positions in the organisation. Hierarchy is a system of ranking various positions in descending scale from top to bottom of the organisation.
In bureaucratic organisation, offices also follow the principle of hierarchy that is each lower office is subject to control and supervision by higher office. Thus, no office is left uncontrolled in the organisation. This is the fundamental concept of hierarchy in bureaucratic organisation.
This hierarchy serves as lines of communication and delegation of authority. It implies that communication coming down or going up must pass through each position.
Similarly, a subordinate will get authority from his immediate superior. However, this hierarchy is net unitary but sub-pyramids of officials within the large organisation corresponding etc.
Thus, there are offices with the same amount of authority but with different kinds of functions operating in different areas of competence.
For example, the Government organisations, we can observe separate offices looking after particular functions. This happens in business organisations too.
Work of the organisation is divided on the basis of specialisation to take the advantages of division of labour.
Each office in the bureaucratic organisation has specific sphere of competence. Thus, division of labour try to ensure that each office has a clearly-defined area of competence within the organisation and each official knows the areas in which he operates and the areas in which he must abstain from action so that he does not overstep the boundary between his role and those of others.
Further, division of labour also tries to ensure that no work is left uncovered. A basic and most emphasised feature of bureaucratic organisation is that administrative process is continuous and governed by official rules.
Bureaucratic organisation is the antithesis of ad hoc, temporary, and temporary and unstable relations. A rational approach to organisation calls for a system of maintaining rules to ensure twin requirements of uniformity and coordination of efforts by individual members in the organisation.
These rules are more or less stable and more or less exhaustive. When there is no rule on any aspect of organisational operation, the matter is referred upward for decision which subsequently becomes precedent for future decision on the similar matter.
Rules provide the benefits of stability, continuity, and predictability and each official knows precisely the outcome of his behaviour in a particular matter.
A notable feature of bureaucracy is that relationships among individuals are governed through the system of official authority and rules.
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Official positions are free from personal involvement, emotions and sentiments. Thus, decisions are governed by rational factors rather than personal factors. This impersonality concept is used in dealing with organisational relations as well as relations between the organisation and outsiders.
Bureaucratic organisation is characterised by maintenance of proper official records. The decisions and activities of the organisation are formally recorded and preserved for future reference.
This is made possible by extensive use of filling system in the organisation. An official record is almost regarded as encyclopedia of various activities performed by the people in the organisation. The following are the advantages of Bureaucracy: The rules and procedures are decided for every work it leads to, consistency in employee behaviour.
Since employees are bound to follow the rules etc. The duties and responsibilities of each job are clearly defined there is no question of overlapping or conflicting job duties.Advantages and Disadvantages of mobile phones () Virtually every person has a cellphone these days.
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