Archaeology Linguistics Many other fields and subject areas regularly use this style too.
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.
Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title.
All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. Basic Rules All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
Authors' names are inverted last name first ; give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name.
After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
Present the journal title in full. Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format.
For more information, see page of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.The 6th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was created by the American Psychological Assocation (APA), and contains the complete guidelines on how to format material for publication and cite your research.
It is a set of style rules that codifies the components of scientific writing in order to deliver. Sample Dissertation / Thesis Example.
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(Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. ) Individual web page. Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc.
Note that proper names and acronyms are capitalized. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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