Creating a Vision and Mission statements. The starting point of the process is initial assessment of the firm. What does an organization want to become? Vision is the ultimate goal for the firm and the direction for its employees.
It is one of most important duty of an entrepreneur to motivate people. Now, lets rise on the shoulders of the giants: A Classification of Motivation Theories Content vs.
Process Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. According to this theory, individual strives to seek a higher need when lower needs are fulfilled.
Once a lower-level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a source of motivation. Needs are motivators only when they are unsatisfied. In the first level, physiological needs exist which include the most basic needs for humans to survive, such as air, water and food.
In the second level, safety needs exist which include personal security, health, well-being and safety against accidents remain. In the third level, belonging needs exit. This is where people need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance.
It is about relationships, families and friendship. Organizations fulfill this need for people. In the fourth level, self-esteem needs remain. This is where people looks to be respected and to have self-respect.
Achievement needs, respect of others are in this level. In the top-level, self-actualization needs exist. He suggested that there are two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways: A series of hygiene factors create dissatisfaction if individuals perceive them as inadequate or inequitable, yet individuals will not be significantly motivated if these factors are viewed as adequate or good.
Hygiene factors are extrinsic and include factors such as salary or remuneration, job security and working conditions.
They are intrinsic factors such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth. The hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction, and motivators determine satisfaction. In other words, satisfaction does not correlate with productivity.
The person who have a high need for achievement seeks achievement and tries to attain challenging goals.
There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. The person who have a high achievement need likes to take personal responsibility.
The person who have a high need for affiliation needs harmonious relationships with people and needs to be accepted by other people. People-oriented rather than task-oriented. The person who have a need for power wants to direct and command other people. Most managers have a high need for power.
Although these categories of needs are not exlusive, generally individuals develop a dominant bias or emphasis towards one of the three needs. Entrepreneurs usually have high degree of achivement needs. This is based on the general principle of reinforcement. Process Theories about Motivation Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory argues that humans act according to their conscious expectations that a particular behavior will lead to specific desirable goals.
Vroom, developed the expectancy theory inproducing a systematic explanatory theory of workplace motivation. Three components of Expectancy theory are: The value of the reward according to the person.
Is the reward attractive to the person? The equation suggests that human behaviour is directed by subjective probability. Goal Theory Edwin Locke proposed Goal Theory inwhich proposes that motivation and performance will be high if individuals are set specific goals which are challenging, but accepted, and where feedback is given on performance.
The two most important findings of this theory are: Setting specific goals e.satisfying the following chain of inequalities: (PD1) \(T \gt R \gt P \gt S\) There are two players, Row and Column.
Each has two possible moves, “cooperate” or “defect,” corresponding, respectively, to the options of remaining silent or confessing in the illustrative anecdote above. Workplace Environment and Employee Performance.
An employee's workplace environment is a key determinant of the quality of their work and their level of productivity. Jennifer Cox, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Clinical Psychology program at The University of Alabama, specializing in Psychology-Law.
This chapter presents a general theoretical framework of human memory and describes the results of a number of experiments designed to test specific models that can be derived from the overall theory. Personality and Motivation- Introduction Donald Broadbent's career has been an exception to the rule that serious cognitive psychologists should treat individual differences as .
One way to audit or create job descriptions is to conduct a job analysis. Job analysis is the process of gathering, examining and interpreting data about the job’s tasks and responsibilities.