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His mother was the daughter of Eduardo Gasset y Artime, founder of El Imparcial, the eminent liberal daily newspaper; Ortega divided his time between creative writing and serving as the editor of the family enterprise from to He remained in Deusto, studying philosophy, letters, and law, until May 13,when he was awarded distinction in his first-year examinations at the University of Salamanca.
Miguel de Unamuno, an eminent figure in Spanish intellectual circles and dean of the faculty, served on the panel of examiners. The following year, Ortega transferred to the Central University of Madrid from which he received his licenciatura in philosophy and letters in Juneand his doctorate in December He wrote his thesis on The Terrors of the Year One Thousand in which an early interest in a general interpretive approach to history, with a view toward the sociological manifestations of a historical period, became evident.
While at the Central University of Madrid, Ortega developed a close friendship with Ramiro de Maeztu with whom he shared an enthusiasm for Nietzsche's philosophy. Inthe year prior to his departure for Germany, Ortega wrote his first article for the El Imparcial, the family newspaper, on the Belgian poet Maurice Maeterlinck.
This first trip to Germany resulted in an eight-month stay at the University of Leipzig where he pursued the study of classical philology and philosophy. Ortega's proficiency in German proved inadequate to study philology, but this linguistic deficiency did not deter his enthusiasm: Although the time devoted to philological studies somewhat distracted him from the philosophical training he sought initially, Ortega was introduced to the writings of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Ernest Renan, Hippolyte Taine, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche and Charles Darwin, and audited anatomy, physiology and psychology courses of Wilhelm Wundt who, despite having been appointed the chair of philosophy, served as professor of physiology and psychology at Leipzig.
He returned to Madrid in the summer ofwhere he received word that he had been granted a state stipend to resume his study in Germany for another year. However, Ortega only attended Riehl's lectures while in Berlin, which he later came to regret as he missed the opportunity to encounter two thinkers he would subsequently admire: The University of Marburg, with its inquiry into the logical foundation of the natural sciences and its emphasis on the epistemological and methodological facets of philosophy, provided Ortega with the kind of philosophical grounding and training he had been seeking.
They served as the vehicle through which he conveyed his critical assessment of Spanish and European cultures. The Generation of acquired their name as the events of the Spanish American War unfolded, which presented the perception of national catastrophe and provided a context for their national and social criticisms.
Spaniards perceived the war as a national disaster, and the Generation of came together to discuss what they considered to be the degeneration of Spain. In June Ortega was appointed professor of ethics, logic and psychology at La Escuela Superior del Magisterio Normal Schoolwhich he had helped found.
In late October, at the Assembly for the Progress of Science held in Zaragoza, he spoke vehemently in favor of regenerating Spain by broadening her horizons within European thought.
A month later, he received the professorship at the Central University of Madrid, at the remarkable age of twenty-seven. The symbolic name reveals the importance of Germany for Ortega.
At the end of DecemberOrtega returned to Madrid to assume his teaching duties, and in Januarytook up the position of professor of metaphysics, a chair he occupied for twenty-four years, with only two brief interruptions: In JulyOrtega, his father and several other Spanish intellectuals departed Spain for Argentina where, between August and October, Ortega gave a series of lectures at the University of Buenos Aires on Kant and the currents in contemporary Continental philosophy.
These lectures followed the recent arrival of Julio Rey Pastor, a noted Spanish mathematician, who immigrated to Argentina to elevate the mathematical and scientific level of instruction at the University of Buenos Aires.
Ortega's residence in Buenos Aires kept him away from political affairs, save for an article in June in which he criticized the role of the military in politics. The first issue appeared on December 1, Five years later, Ortega also assisted in establishing the publishing house Calpe later named Espasa-Calpewhich immediately made available Spanish and European classic and contemporary literature in reasonably priced paperback editions.
Between these activities, Ortega became the founder and director of the monthly Revista de Occidente, publishing the first issue in July The Revista, which was directed toward an educated readership, quickly became one of Europe's renowned intellectual journals.
The Generation of originated as a term to characterize a certain similarity of poets and writers in s Spain. The year signaled the moment when intellectuals and students began to resist the dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera as a prelude to the Second Republic.
As with their predecessors, the Generation ofthe perceived national crisis created a spirit of collective mentality, or at least a shared identity, in the years preceding the Spanish Civil War.
Other members of the Generation of found expression through the Revista de Occidente. Ortega, whose major works were published in the s, served as one of the most important links between the two generations by giving editorial assistance to the younger poets and addressing The Dehumanization of Art to their concerns.
These young artists and poets were marking their careers on the crest of a new wave that swept intellectual circles in Europe and Spain. Politics appeared to pursue culture and art. As these young poets and artists matured and identified with the Generation ofthey became more daring and willing to experiment with new techniques and media to produce a much wider vivid impact.
Their works offered vivid images of the new abstract aesthetic mysticism and surrealism in the s.investigation of the creative side of intelligence, the major study of creativity in psychology occurred in the s.
The early part of the twentieth century Although creativity has a very long history, systematic study of it began at the turn of the last century. must study that behavior in situations.
the physical setting e.g., schedules, space, pay, and reward and the internalized notions of norms, traditions, roles, and values are crucial contextual variables.
Radical criminology has been defined as that criminology which takes a Marxist approach to crime and crime control.
7 But the positions that Karl Marx himself took on the subject are a matter of some contro-. A Radical Approach to Real Analysis is an introduction to r More than 60 new exercises have been added, and the chapters on infinite summations, differentiability and continuity, and convergence of infinite series have been reorganized to /5.
Real Analysis: A Comprehensive Course in Analysis, Part 1 by Barry Simon (Author). Real Analysis Class Notes Real Analysis, 4th Edition, H. L. Royden and P.M. Fitzpatrick.. Copies of the classnotes are on the internet in PDF format as given below.
The "Proofs of Theorems" files were prepared in Beamer.